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Table 1 Prevalence of dental fluorosis among humans (N = 186), cattle (N = 23) and goats (N = 123) on Gihaya Island, Rwanda, 2018 (based on the Dean’s Fluorosis Index)

From: Dental fluorosis among people and livestock living on Gihaya Island in Lake Kivu, Rwanda

  Absent/Questionable Very mild Mild Moderate Severe Total p–value*
  n (%)  
Humans
 Gendera
  Male 9 (10.3) 3 (3.4) 8 (9.2) 48 (55.2) 19 (21.8) 78 (89.6) 0.9
  Female 8 (8.3) 3 (3.1) 11 (11.5) 57 (59.4) 17 (17.7) 88 (96.6)
  Total 17 (9.3) 6 (3.3) 19 (10.4) 105 (57.4) 36 (19.7) 166 (90.7)
Livestock
 Type
  Goats 11 (10.8) NA 74 (72.5) 17 (16.7) 0 (0) 91 (89.2)  < 0.001
  Cattle 19 (82.6) NA 4 (17.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (17.4)
  Total 30 (24.0) NA 78 (62.4) 17 (13.6) 0 (0) 95 (76.0)
 Sex
  Male 1 (33.3) NA 1 (33.3) 1 (33.3) 0 (0) 2 (66.4) 0.3
  Female 29 (23.8) NA 77 (63.1) 16 (13.1) 0 (0) 93 (76.2)
  Total 30 (24.0) NA 78 (62.4) 17 (13.6) 0 (0) 95 (76.0)
  1. NA = Not Applicable due to modification in Dean’s Fluorosis Index for livestock
  2. * Determined using Fisher’s Exact Test
  3. a Data regarding gender were available for 183 out 186 participants