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Table 4 Fluoride level in local foods Gihaya Island, Rwanda (2018, 2019)

From: Dental fluorosis among people and livestock living on Gihaya Island in Lake Kivu, Rwanda

  Fluoride content (mg/g)
Samples 1st test 2nd test 3rd test Mean F SD
Raw foods
 Beans (fresh) 0.56 0.52 0.64 0.57 0.06
 Bean leaves 0.91 0.96 0.98 0.94 0.03
 Cassava roots 3.85 × 10–2 4.57 × 10–2 4.32 × 10–2 4.24 × 10–2 4.5 × 10–3
 Cassava leaves 0.84 0.88 0.77 0.82 0.05
 Small fishes 1.03 1.08 1.06 1.05 0.02
Cooked foods
 Beans HH1a 0.19 0.18 0.19 0.19 0.005
 Beans HH2 0.23 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.005
 Porridge HH1 0.51 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.005
 Porridge HH2 0.47 0.47 0.46 0.47 0.005
 Ugali HH1 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.12 0.005
 Ugali HH2 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0
 Green banana HH1 0.20 0.21 0.21 0.20 0.005
 Green banana HH2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0
 Fish HH1 0.38 0.37 0.36 0.37 0.01
 Fish HH2 0.16 0.16 0.15 0.16 0.005
 Green marog HH1 0.30 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.005
Other samples
 Grass 0.17 0.16 0.18 0.17 0.01
 Soil 0.25 0.39 0.32 0.32 0.07
  1. aHH Household number