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Table 3 Fluoride content of raw water samples collected from Gihaya Island, Rwanda (2018, 2019)

From: Dental fluorosis among people and livestock living on Gihaya Island in Lake Kivu, Rwanda

  Fluoride content (mg/L)
Sample 1st test 2nd test 3rd test Mean SD
December 2018
 LK 1.79 1.73 1.73 1.75 0.3
 SP 0.14 0.13 0.12 0.13 0.1
 HPRW 2.36 × 10–3 1.96 × 10–3 1.33 × 10–3 1.88 × 10–3 5.19 × 10–4
July 2019
 LK 1 1.63 1.64 1.64 1.64 0.006
 LK 2 1.63 1.65 1.64 1.64 0.01
 LK 3 1.65 1.67 1.67 1.71 0.01
 LK 4 1.64 1.64 1.65 1.64 0.006
 LK 5 1.64 1.64 1.64 1.64 0
 LK 6 1.74 1.70 1.70 1.71 0.02
 SP 0.13 0.14 0.12 0.13 0.004
 HPRW 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.006
  1. LK Lake Kivu, HPRW Health Post Rainwater, SP Solar Pump, SD Standard Deviation