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Table 1 Factors associated with HEV IgG positivity in humans

From: Sero-molecular epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in pigs and human contacts in Ghana

Variable Negative (%) Positive (%) P-value
Total 334 210  
Age group (a)    <  0.001*
 13–32 192 (59.1) 63 (30.3)  
 33–52 87 (26.8) 77 (37)  
 53–90 46 (14.2) 68 (32.7)  
Highest educational level    <  0.001*
 No formal school education 122 (36.5) 129 (61.4)  
 Tertiary 27 (8.1) 8 (3.8)  
 Middle School 17 (5.1) 5 (2.4)  
 Junior High School 69 (20.7) 26 (12.4)  
 Senior High School 43 (12.9) 11 (5.2)  
 Primary School 56 (16.8) 31 (14.8)  
Religion    <  0.001*
 No religion 5 (1.5) 7 (3.3)  
 Christian 229 (68.6) 115 (54.8)  
 Muslim 73 (21.9) 48 (22.9)  
 Traditional 27 (8.1) 40 (19)  
Gender (a)    0.179
 Female 137 (41.3) 98 (47.6)  
 Male 195 (58.7) 108 (52.4)  
Marital status of respondent    <  0.001*
 Single 106 (31.9) 30 (14.6)  
 Married 210 (63.3) 164 (80)  
 Cohabiting 5 (1.5) 0 (0)  
 Divorced 6 (1.8) 2 (1)  
 Separated 1 (0.3) 1 (0.5)  
 Widowed 4 (1.2) 8 (3.9)  
Region    <  0.001*
 Ashanti 53 (15.9) 21 (10)  
 Greater Accra 23 (6.9) 4 (1.9)  
 Northern Region 29 (8.7) 33 (15.7)  
 Upper East 167 (50) 146 (69.5)  
 Volta Region 62 (18.6) 6 (2.9)  
Do you use pipe as your source of water (a)    0.022*
 No 267 (80.2) 185 (88.1)  
 Yes 66 (19.8) 25 (11.9)  
Do you use a well as your source of water (a)    0.54
 No 264 (79.3) 161 (76.7)  
 Yes 69 (20.7) 49 (23.3)  
Do you use a borehole as your source of water (a)    <  0.001*
 No 150 (45) 62 (29.5)  
 Yes 183 (55) 148 (70.5)  
Do you have toilet facility in your home (a)    0.035*
 No 168 (50.6) 126 (60.3)  
 Yes 164 (49.4) 83 (39.7)  
Do you use stream as your source of water (a)    0.015*
 No 324 (97.3) 210 (100)  
 Yes 9 (2.7) 0 (0)  
Do you consume pork (a)
 No 134 (40.2) 199 (59.8)  
 Yes 81 (38.6) 129 (61.4) 0.766
Contact with Pigs
 No 184 (55.1) 96 (45.7) 0.041*
 Yes 150 (44.9) 114 (54.3)  
  1. *Shows signirficance for variable with p-value < 0.05; a denotes variables that had missing data points in them. The proportions shown are based on available data provided by respondents and not on the total positive and negative for all participants. NB: All proportions calculated are based on the complete set of column data for positive and negative