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Table 4 Crude and Adjusted Odds Ratios for Agrochemical Association with CKDu

From: A pilot case-control study using a one health approach to evaluate behavioral, environmental, and occupational risk factors for chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka

Factor Control (N = 54)
n (%)
Case (N = 56)
n (%)
Crude Odds Ratio (95% CI) Adjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Fertilizer
 Urea 38 (70%) 47 (84%) 2.20 (0.9, 5.5) 0.92 (0.3, 3.2)
 Muriate of Potash* 1 (2%) 0 (0%) 3.15 (1.4, 7.4) 1.86 (0.7, 5.1)
 Triple Super Phosphate 11 (20%) 21 (38%) 2.35 (1.0, 5.5) 1.84 (0.7, 5.2)
 Mud/Manure 11 (20%) 5 (9%) 0.38 (0.1, 1.2) 0.41 (0.1, 1.5)
Insecticide
 Carbosulfan 5 (9%) 3 (5%) 0.55 (0.13, 2.44) 0.48 (0.1, 2.5)
 Carbofuran 4 (7%) 4 (7%) 0.96 (0.23, 4.06) 0.47 (0.1, 2.4)
 Curateer 7 (13%) 6 (11%) 0.81 (0.25, 2.57) 0.74 (0.2, 2.8)
Herbicide
 Glyphosate* 19 (35%) 32 (57%) 2.46 (1.14, 5.30) 1.09 (0.4, 2.8)
 MCPA 24 (44%) 28 (50%) 1.25 (0.59, 2.65) 0.92 (0.4, 2.3)
 DPA 11 (20%) 17 (30%) 1.70 (0.71, 4.08) 0.88 (0.3, 2.5)
 Metamifop 8 (15%) 8 (14%) 0.96 (0.33, 2.77) 1.39 (0.4, 4.9)
  1. * p ≤ 0.05; Adjusted by age, gender, farming occupation and alcohol consumption