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Table 1 Study Population Characteristics by Case-Control Status

From: A pilot case-control study using a one health approach to evaluate behavioral, environmental, and occupational risk factors for chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka

Factor Level Control
n (%)
Case
n (%)
P-Value
N   54 56  
Age, mean (SD)*   49.5 (11.7) 57.5 (9.6) < 0.001
Gender* Female 27 (51) 16 (29) 0.017
Male 26 (49) 40 (71)
Diabetes mellitus Diagnosis Yes 13 (24) 2 (4) < 0.001
No 41 (76) 54 (96)
Farming as occupation* No 14 (28) 3 (6) 0.002
Yes 36 (72) 51 (94)
Drinking water source Dug Well 48 (89) 52 (93) 0.47
Rain Water 6 (11) 5 (9) 0.7
Treat drinking water Drinking 34 (63) 41 (75) 0.19
Keep livestock Livestock 17 (31) 19 (34) 0.78
Smoking status Tobacco 8 (15) 14 (25) 0.18
Cannabis 2 (4) 7 (12) 0.092
Chew betel* Betel 22 (41) 40 (71) 0.001
Alcohol a problem in village Not a Problem 13 (27) 11 (21) 0.85
Minor Problem 17 (35) 20 (38)
Moderate Problem 10 (20) 9 (17)
Major Problem 9 (18) 12 (23)
Alcohol consumption Any Alcohol 22 (41) 33 (59) 0.056
Arrack 19 (35) 27 (48) 0.17
Beer 14 (26) 16 (29) 0.76
Kasippu 13 (24) 18 (32) 0.35
Pesticide use* Any 42 (78) 52 (93) 0.025
Fungicide 21 (44) 29 (55) 0.27
Herbicide 41 (76) 51 (91) 0.032
Insecticide 42 (78) 44 (79) 0.92
  1. *Significance attributed as p-value < 0.05