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Table 3 Distribution of surveillance system integration mechanisms by Regions (n = 102 articles)

From: A systematic review on integration mechanisms in human and animal health surveillance systems with a view to addressing global health security threats

   Regiona
Integration mechanism Sector Africa Asia Australia Europe North America South America Internationalb Unknown Total
Interconnectivity (n = 19) Animal health 0 1 0 3 0 0 1 0 5
Human health 1 0 0 3 3 0 3 1 11
One Health 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 3
Total 1 1 0 8 4 0 4 1 19
Interoperability (n = 35) Animal health 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Human health 2 1 2 7 10 2 0 0 24
One Health 1 1 1 1 3 2 0 0 9
Total 3 3 3 8 13 4 0 0 35
Semantic consistency (n = 21) Animal health 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Human health 1 2 0 5 8 0 0 0 16
One Health 0 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 4
Total 1 2 0 7 11 0 0 0 21
Convergent (n = 27) Animal health 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Human health 6 4 0 1 4 1 0 0 16
One health 2 1 2 1 2 0 3 0 11
Total 8 5 2 2 6 1 3 0 27
  Total per region 13 11 5 25 34 5 7 1 102
  1. aThe Region was determined by the country in which the system was located
  2. b International cover studies which were done in more than one region