Skip to main content

Table 2 Surveillance attributes and integration mechanisms extracted from the articles included in the review (n = 102 studies)a

From: A systematic review on integration mechanisms in human and animal health surveillance systems with a view to addressing global health security threats

Attribute Mechanism No. of articles References
Acceptability Interconnectivity 3 [30,31,32]
Interoperability 3 [33,34,35]
Semantic consistency 2 [36, 37]
Convergent integration 10 [13, 38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46]
Cost-effectiveness Interconnectivity 2 [31, 47]
Interoperability 4 [48,49,50,51]
Convergent integration 3 [43, 52, 53]
Data quality Interconnectivity 2 [54, 55]
Interoperability 8 [35, 56,57,58,59,60,61,62]
Semantic consistency 8 [36, 63,64,65,66,67,68,69]
Convergent integration 6 [40, 52, 70,71,72,73]
Flexibility Interconnectivity 2 [74, 75]
Interoperability 7 [33, 50, 57, 60, 76,77,78]
Semantic consistency 2 [36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66]
Convergent integration 4 [44, 79,80,81]
Positive predictive value Interconnectivity 1 [82]
Interoperability 6 [49, 50, 83,84,85,86]
Semantic consistency 3 [87,88,89]
Convergent integration 2 [90, 91]
Representativeness Interconnectivity 1 [92]
Interoperability 2 [58, 93]
Semantic consistency 1 [64]
Sensitivity Interconnectivity 10 [30, 55, 82, 92, 94,95,96,97,98,99]
Interoperability 16 [10, 34, 50, 51, 55, 78, 83,84,85,86, 100,101,102,103,104,105]
Semantic consistency 10 [37, 67, 68, 87, 89, 106,107,108,109,110]
Convergent integration 8 [39, 40, 72, 80, 90, 111,112,113]
Simplicity Interconnectivity 3 [31, 54, 114]
Interoperability 2 [78, 115]
Semantic consistency 2 [36, 106]
Convergent integration 2 [44, 91]
Stability Interconnectivity 1 [32]
Interoperability 2 [115, 116]
Convergent integration 1 [117]
Timeliness Interconnectivity 7 [54, 96, 97, 99, 114, 118, 119]
Interoperability 10 [10, 34, 48, 77, 93, 103, 116, 120,121,122]
Semantic consistency 9 [63, 64, 66, 69, 89, 123,124,125,126]
Convergent integration 15 [23, 40, 43, 70, 72, 73, 91, 113, 117, 127,128,129,130]
  1. aData source: PubMed, HINARI, Web of Science, Science Direct and advanced Google search engines
  2. Search strategy: PUBMED database
  3. 1. Surveillance
  4. 2. Monitor
  5. 3. Monitoring
  6. 4. Monitored
  7. 5. 1 OR 2 OR 3 OR 4
  8. 6. Integrate
  9. 7. Integration
  10. 8. Integrated
  11. 9. Integrating
  12. 10. 6 OR 7 OR 8 OR 9
  13. 11. Animal health
  14. 12. Human health
  15. 13. Public health
  16. 14. One Health
  17. 15. 11 OR 12 OR 13 OR 14
  18. 16. System
  19. 17. Systems
  20. 18. 16 OR 17
  21. 19. 5 AND 10 AND 15